Bireysel yazarların eleştirel yanıtlarını tanıtmak


Smith (2014) disputes this account of … Jones (2003) has also questioned why ... However, Jones (2015) points out that ...

The author challenges the widely held view that ... Smith (1999) takes issue with the contention that … The idea that … was first challenged by Smith (1992). Smith is critical of the tendency to compartmentalise X.

However, Smith (1967) questioned this hypothesis and … Smith (1980) broke with tradition by raising the question of …

Jones (2003) has challenged some of Smith’s conclusions, arguing that ... Another major criticism of Smith’s study, made by Jones (2003), is that … Jones (2003) is critical of the conclusions that Smith draws from his findings. An alternative interpretation of the origins of X can be found in Smith (1976).

Jones (2003) is probably the best-known critic of the X theory. He argues that ... In her discussion of X, Smith further criticises the ways in which some authors … Smith’s decision to reject the classical explanation of X merits some discussion …

In a recent article in Academic Journal, Smith (2014) questions the extent to which … The latter point has been devastatingly critiqued by Jones (2003), who argues that ...

A recently published article by Smith et al. (2011) casts doubt on Jones’ assumption that … Other authors (see Harbison, 2003; Kaplan, 2004) question the usefulness of such an approach.

Smith criticised Jones for his overly restrictive and selective definition of X which was limited to … Smith’s analysis has been criticised by a number of writers. Jones (1993), for example, points out ...








criticises … questions … challenges … is critical of …

casts doubt on … points out that … takes issue with…

raises a number of questions about …




Bir metnin kritik bir amaca sahip bölümünü tanıtmak






The section below


The section that follows











assesses examines


the idea that … the view that … the quality of … the claim that … the concept of …

the role played by … the argument that … Smith’s analysis of … the effectiveness of …

the current approaches to …

Sınıflandırmak ve Listelemek

Nesneleri sınıflandırdığımızda, onları ortak olan bir şeye göre gruplandırır ve adlandırırız. Bunu yaparak, bir sınıf olarak paylaştıkları belirli nitelikleri ve özellikleri anlayabiliriz. Sınıflandırma aynı zamanda şeyler arasındaki farklılıkları anlamanın bir yoludur. Sınıflandırma, yazılı olarak genellikle okuyucuya yeni bir konuyu tanıtmanın bir yolu olarak kullanılır. Sınıflandırma işlevi, tanımları yazmanın yanı sıra bir makalenin ilk bölümünde veya daha uzun bir yazı parçasında kullanılabilir. Bir dizi öğeyi veya farklı bilgi parçalarını sistematik olarak ele almak ve sunmak istediğimizde şeyleri listeleriz. Bir listenin sırası, önem sırasını da gösterebilir.




Bir konuyu sınıflandırmak

X can be classified into Xi and Xii.

X can be categorised into Xi, Xii and Xiii.

Several taxonomies for X have been developed … Different methods have been proposed to classify … X may be divided into several groups: a) …, b) …, c) …

Generally, X provides two types of information: Xi and Xii.

It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘Xi’ from ‘Xii’ forms of X.

X is generally classified into two types: Xi, also known as ..., and Xii or ...

There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is …

The theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social X and semantic X (Smith, 2013).

The works of Smith fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and ..., (2) collections of facts, and (3) …




X may be divided into



three main


classes. categories. sub-groups.




X may be classified


in terms of according to depending on on the basis of






into Xi and Xii.



Belirli sınıflandırmalar

Smith (2015) draws a distinction between …

Smith (2006) categorised X as being a) …, b) …, or c) … Smith’s (1980) typology of X is the one most widely used.

Jones (1987) distinguishes between systems that are a) …, b) …, or c) …

A third method, proposed by Smith (2010), bases the classification on a …

To better understand X, Smith (2011) classified Y into three distinct types using ...

In 1960, Smith developed a system of classification that can be used by clinicians to …

In Jones’s system, individuals are classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of ... For Smith, X is of four kinds: (1) X which ...; (2) X which ...; (3) X which ...; and (4) X which ...

Smith’s Taxonomy is a classification system used to define and distinguish different levels of … Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) ..., and b) ...


In Smith’s scheme,

In the traditional system,





are were


grouped classified


in terms of ...

on the basis of ... according to whether ...




Smith (1996) describes


four basic kinds of validity:


logical, content, criterion, and construct.





Smith and Jones (1966)


divided grouped classified






into two broad types: Xis and Xiis.






Smith’s taxonomy is


used to classify …

a hierarchical model for classifying ...

a well-known description of levels of … a classification of learning objectives ....

a widely acknowledged classification system useful for ....

a multi-tiered model of classifying X according to different levels of …




Bir sınıflandırma sistemi ile ilgili yorum yapmak: pozitif ya da tarafsız











This system of classification


includes ... allows for ...

is widely used in … helps distinguish ... is useful because ... is very simple and …

provides a basis for ... has clinical relevance. was agreed upon after ... can vary depending on ...

is still respected and used.

is particularly well suited for … has withstood the test of time.

is a convenient way to describe … has been broadened to include ... was developed for the purpose of ...

is more scientific since it is based on …

Bir sınıflandırma sistemi hakkında yorum yapmak: negatif









This system of classification


is misleading.

is now out of date. can be problematic. is in need of revision.

poses a problem for ... is not universally used. is somewhat arbitrary.

is simplistic and arbitrary. is inherently problematic. has relevance only within …

has some clear deficiencies.

has now been largely abandoned. has limited utility with respect to ... is obsolete and tends to be avoided.




Liste sunmak

This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y, and Z. The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y, and Z.

There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are ... The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ....

There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant. These are: Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they ... Secondly, they ...

This section has been included for several reasons: it is ...; it illustrates ...; and it describes...

The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: ...

During his tour of Britain, he visited the following industrial centres: Manchester, Leeds, and.... The

Mass for Four Voices consists of five movements, which are: the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and

Agnus Dei.




Başkalarının listelerine atıf yapmak

Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of failure.

Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is A; it is B; and it has C.

Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) ... and b) ...

Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for X . Firstly, X should be ... Secondly, it needs to be...

For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which ...; (2) motion which ...; (3) motion which... ;

and (4) motion which...

Karşılaştırma Yapmak

İki şey arasındaki benzerlikleri ve farklılıkları anlayarak, anlayışımızı artırabilir ve her ikisi hakkında daha fazla şey öğrenebiliriz. Bu durum genellikle belirli parçaları ve bütünü karşılaştırdığımız bir analiz sürecini içerir. Karşılaştırma, değerlendirmenin bir ön aşaması da olabilir. Örneğin, A ve B'nin belirli yönlerini karşılaştırarak hangisinin daha yararlı veya değerli olduğuna karar verebiliriz. İşlevi karşılaştırma yapmak ya da karşıtlık bulmak olan birçok paragraf, genel terimlerle ifade edilen bir giriş cümlesiyle başlayacaktır.




Farklılıkları sunmak

X differs from Y in terms of …

X is different from Y in a number of respects.

X differs from Y in a number of important ways.

There are a number of important differences between X and Y. Areas where significant differences have been found include X and Y.

In contrast to earlier findings, however, no evidence of X was detected.

A descriptive case study differs from an exploratory study in that it uses …

Smith (2013) found dramatic differences in the rate of decline of X between Y and Z. Women and men differ not only in physical attributes but also in the way in which they ... The nervous systems of Xs are significantly different from those of Ys in several key respects.






Smith (2003)




found observed


minor major distinct notable only slight significant






differences between X and Y.










One of the most


crucial salient marked striking notable obvious important significant prominent noticeable interesting fundamental

widely reported
















between X and Y








is …

Benzerlikleri sunmak

X is comparable to Y in terms of …

Both X and Y share a number of key features.

There are a number of similarities between X and Y.

The effects of X on human health are similar to those of Y. Both X and Y generally take place in a ‘safe environment’.

These results are similar to those reported by (Smith et al. 1999). This definition is similar to that found in (Smith, 2001) who writes:

The return rate is similar to that of comparable studies (e.g. Smith et al. 1999).

The approach used in this investigation is similar to that used by other researchers.

Studies have compared Xs in humans and animals and found that they are essentially identical.



The mode of processing used by the right brain


is similar to that

is comparable to that

is comparable in complexity to that



used by the left brain.




Yardımcı zarflar (subordinating adverbs) kullanarak bir cümle içinde karşılaştırma yapmak



Oral societies tend to be more concerned with the present


while whereas


literate societies have a very definite awareness of the past.



While Whereas



oral societies tend to be more concerned with the present,


literate societies have a very definite awareness of the past.




Edat cümleleri (prepositional phrases) kullanarak bir cümle içinde karşılaştırma yapmak



In contrast to Compared with


people in oral cultures,


people in literate cultures organise their lives around clocks and calendars.




Zıt fiiller (contrastive verbs) kullanarak bir cümle içinde karşılaştırma yapmak




Smith’s interpretation


differs from that contrasts with that is different from that



of Jones (2004) who argues that ...

Karşılaştırmalı yapılar (comparative forms) kullanarak bir cümle içinde karşılaştırma yapmak

In the trial, women made more/fewer errors than men. Women tend to have greater/less verbal fluency than men. Women are more/less likely than men to perform well in tests.

Women are more/less accurate in tests of target-directed motor skills. Women tend to perform better/worse than men on tests of perceptual speed.

Women are faster/slower than men at certain precision manual tasks, such as ...

Women are more/less likely to suffer from X when the front part of the brain is damaged. The part of the brain connecting the two hemispheres may be more/less extensive in women.








may be more/less susceptible to X are more/less accurate in tests of X are more/less likely to perform well make more/fewer errors in tests of X

tend to have greater/less verbal fluency tend to perform better/worse in tests of X




than men.





Farklılıkları iki cümle ile belirtmek



It is very difficult to get away from calendar time in literate societies.


By contrast, In contrast,

On the other hand,


many people in oral communities have little idea of the calendar year of their birth.




According to some studies, X is represented as …  (Smith, 2012; Jones, 2014).


Others propose … (Jones, 2014; Brown, 2015)




Smith (2013) found that X accounted for over 30% of Y.


Other researchers, however, who have looked at X, have found ...  Jones (2010), for example, ...




Jones (2002) reports that ...


However, Smith’s (2010) study of Y found no ...

Benzerlikleri iki cümle ile belirtmek




Young children learning their first language need simplified input.


Similarly, Likewise,

In the same way,



low level adult learners need graded input supplied in most cases by a teacher.





Smith (2014) argues that ... Jones (2015) sees X as ...


Similarly, Likewise,

In the same vein,


Brown (2015) asserts that ...

White (2016) holds the view that ... Green (2018) in his book XXXXX notes ...